What are the most common defects that occur in concrete and their causes?

These defects in concrete structures can be due to poor construction practices, poor quality control or due to poor structural design and detailing. Common types of defects in concrete structures are honeycombing, form failure or misalignment of formwork, dimensional errors, rock pockets and finishing errors.
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What are the most common defects of concrete?

Concrete Defects
  • Freeze-Thaw Effect: Concrete is very strong in compression but relatively weak in tension. ...
  • Chemical Attack: Chemical attack can occur because concrete is alkaline and chemically reactive. ...
  • Crazing: ...
  • Scaling: ...
  • Blisters: ...
  • Spalling: ...
  • Dusting: ...
  • Foreign Objects:
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What are the causes of defects in concrete?

What Causes Concrete Surface Defects? Most concrete surface defects occur due to problems during surface smoothing and curing. Concrete surface defects are listed as peeling, dusting, blistering, blooming, plastic shrinkage cracks, hardened concrete cracks, joint damage, but the list goes on.
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What single factor causes the most problems in concrete?

Steel Corrosion

Corrosion of embedded steel is the most common cause of concrete problems. As steel corrodes, the corrosion product expands, and this expansion can crack concrete and cause sections to break loose in flakes.
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What is the most common cause of insufficient concrete quality?

The main factors that affect the failure of concrete structures are:
  • Incorrect selection of materials.
  • Errors in design calculation and detailing.
  • Improper construction techniques and insufficient quality control and supervision.
  • Chemical attacks on concrete structures.
  • External mechanical factors.
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What are the Defects in Concrete | Types of Concrete Defects and its Causes & Preventions



What is the primary failure of concrete?

The primary failure (occurs first) in an over reinforced beam is compression failure, as the crushing of concrete occurs before yielding of the tension reinforcement.
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What is the major weakness of concrete?

The limitations of concrete include: Relatively low tensile strength when compared to other building materials. Low ductability. Low strength-to-weight ratio.
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What are 2 causes of early deterioration of concrete structures?

Main Causes of Concrete Deterioration Are:
  • Corrosion of Rebars or Other Embedded Metals. Exposure of R.C concrete to chloride ions. ...
  • Freezing and Thawing. Expansion of Aggregates. ...
  • Chemical Attack. Exposure to Acid Attack. ...
  • Alkali-Aggregate Action. ...
  • Abrasion or Erosion of Concrete Surfaces. ...
  • Fire and Heat Action.
  • Volume Changes.
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What are the two most important factors affecting strength of concrete?

Listed below are the top six factors affecting the strength of concrete.
  • Raw Material Quality. The initial factor that must be addressed when creating concrete is the raw materials that you wish to use to make said concrete. ...
  • Water/Cement/Aggregate Ratio. ...
  • Compaction. ...
  • Temperature. ...
  • Curing. ...
  • Age.
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What are the two major factors which affect the durability of concrete?

It is affected by the exposure conditions, concrete strength, aggregate properties, cementitious materials, curing methods and surface finish. At its' worst case, abrasion can completely wear away concrete from structural elements.
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What are the main causes of defects?

What causes a defect?
  • Incorrect information.
  • Lack of skill/knowledge.
  • lack of training.
  • Proper monitory.
  • Poor planning.
  • Poor Execution.
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What are four causes of defects?

Defects due to Natural Forces. Defects due to Attack by Insects. Defects due to Fungi. Defects due to Defective Seasoning.
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What are different types of defects in concrete?

Different types of defects in concrete structures can be cracking, crazing, blistering, delamination, dusting, curling, efflorescence, scaling and spalling. These defects can be due to various reasons or causes.
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What is the most common system of distress in a concrete structure?

Structural distress in a concrete structure

Structural distress can be caused by a variety of factors, the most common being the corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel.
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What are the most common construction defects?

Common Construction Defects
  • Structural integrity —​ concrete, masonry & division, carpentry, unstable foundations.
  • Mechanical problems.
  • Electrical issues.
  • Water intrusion (which can result in property damage and toxic mold exposure)
  • Thermal and moisture protection.
  • Doors, windows, and glass seals.
  • Finishing defects.
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How do you identify defects in concrete?

Herein defect detection in concrete structures is realized by telemetry using shock waves generated by laser-induced plasma (LIP). LIP is generated by irradiating a Nd:YAG pulsed laser near the concrete surface. As LIP spreads to the surrounding area at an ultrafast speed, a spherical shock wave is generated.
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What three factors contribute to concrete pressure the most?

Three important factors affect concrete compression: the specimen size, geometry, and friction at its ends, all affect the observed results.
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What is the strongest type of concrete?

Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a cementitious, concrete material that has a minimum specified compressive strength of 17,000 pounds per square inch (120 MPa) with specified durability, tensile ductility and toughness requirements; fibers are generally included in the mixture to achieve specified requirements ...
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What do you mean by creep of concrete?

Definition: time-dependent deformation due to sustained load.- ACI Concrete Terminology. Creep is indicated when strain in a solid increases with time while the stress producing the strain is kept constant.
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What are the four most common causes of concrete structure deterioration?

Causes: Exposure to acid rain, de-icing salts, in-service chemicals and naturally occurring sulfates in soils and ground water dissolve the cement matrix which results in aggregate loss.
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What are the major causes of distress in concrete?

Common causes of concrete distress and deterioration, including Accidental loadings, Chemical reactions, Construction errors, Corrosion of embedded metals, Design errors, Erosion, Freezing and thawing, Settlement and movement, Shrinkage, Temperature chang.
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What are two common causes of deterioration?

The primary source and causes of deterioration and decay in structures and buildings can be listed as follows:
  • Human.
  • Chemical.
  • Atmospheric.
  • Structural.
  • Moisture.
  • Fire.
  • Faulty Design.
  • Faulty Construction.
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What is the common durability problem in concrete?

Durability problems related to environmental causes include the following: steel corrosion, delamination, cracking, carbonation, sulfate attack, chemical attack, scaling, spalling, abrasion and cavitation.
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What weakens concrete strength?

The strength of the concrete is highly dependent on the hydration reaction between the water and cement. Despite, water can also be destructive to a concrete in excess quantities. Adding more water is likely to reduce the strength of the concrete, causing cracks, water seepage and so on.
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What is the weakest part of concrete?

What is the weakness of concrete? Tensile strength of concrete is its main weakness. That is why it must be reinforced with steel bars.
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